References & Further Reading

Online resources

Max Carter, How Quakerism Began,

Quakers in the World, Conscientious Objection,,cntnt01,default,0&cntnt01qid=171&cntnt01returnid=75

Quaker Civilian War Relief:

Quaker United Nations Office,

Quaker Council for European Affairs,

Alternatives to Violence,

Friends Peace Teams in Asia West Pacific,

Further Reading

Oliver M. Ashford, Prophet or Professor?: Life and Work of Lewis Fry Richardson. Bristol: Adam Hilger, 1985, 320 pp.

Hugh Barbour, “The ‘Lamb’s War’ and the Origins of the Quaker Peace Testimony”, in The Pacifist Impulse in Historical Perspective, edited by Harvey L. Dyck, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1996, pp. 145 – 158.

Hugh Barbour and J. William Frost, The Quakers, New York: Greenwood Press, 1988, 407 pp.

William C. Braithwaite, The Beginnings of Quakerism, (revised by Henry J. Cadbury), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1955, 607 pp.

Peter Brock, The Quaker Peace Testimony: 1660 – 1914, York: William Sessions, 1990, 387 pp.

Martin Ceadel, ‘The Quaker Peace Testimony and Its Contribution to the British Peace Movement: An Overview’, Quaker Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2002, pp. 9 – 29,

Arfor Tegla Davies, Friends Ambulance Unit – The Story of the F.A.U. in the Second World War 1939–1945. London: George Allen & Unwin Limited, 1947,

Ruth Fry, A Quaker Adventure: The Story of Nine Years’ Relief and Reconstruction, London: Nisbet & Co., 1926, 389 pp.

John Ormerod Greenwood, Quaker Encounters: Friends and Relief, Vol. 1, York: William Sessions, 1975.

Margaret E. Hirst, The Quakers in Peace and War: An Account of Their Peace Principles and Practice, London: The Swarthmore Press, 1923, 560 pp.

Thomas C. Kennedy, British Quakerism: 1860- 1920: The Transformation of a Religious Community, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001, 477 pp.

Cynthia Earl Kerman, Creative Tension: Life and Thought of Kenneth Boulding, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1974, 398 pp.

Mary Lee Morrison, Elise Boulding: A Life in the Cause of Peace, Mcfarland and Company, 2005, 238 pp.

Heather Saville, Friends Indeed: 50 Years of Quaker Service Australia, Australia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends, 2009, 243 pp.

Alice Steinbach, ‘The Sacrifice of Norman Morrison: Thirty years ago a Baltimore Quaker set himself on fire to protest the war in Vietnam. Did it make a difference?’, Baltimore Sun,

Hilary Summy, Peace Angel of World War I: Dissent of Margaret Thorp, Brisbane: Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, 2006, 140 pp.

Anne Morrison Welsh with Joyce Hollyday, Held in the Light: Norman Morrison's Sacrifice for Peace and His Family's Journey of Healing, Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 2008, 177 pp.

Tom Woodhouse, ‘Adam Curle: Radical Peacemaker and Pioneer of Peace Studies’, Journal of Conflictology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2010,